Marketing performance of subsidiaries operating abroad: An integrative model

Roberto Flores Falcão, Gilmar Masiero, Marcos Campomar


In the internationalization process firms face challenges in order to be successful, such as enabling knowledge transfer, finding the optimum balance between standardizing/adapting their marketing strategies, determining the strength of external networks, and deciding degrees of reverse innovation. Research on knowledge transfer in multinational firms has grown considerably over the last 15 years, but still little is known about its impact on the marketing performance of subsidiaries. The majority of the investigations carried out analyze knowledge transfer but not its interrelationships with the performance of subsidiaries. Several other studies evaluate the standardization/adaptation decision, but do not take into consideration issues such as operational environments or psychic distance. To fill this gap we review 70 articles published in top-tier peer-reviewed international and national journals in the field of international business and international marketing. From this review we build up a framework for the development of an integrative and explanatory theoretical model of the marketing performance of subsidiaries operating abroad with fifteen propositions. In this paper we present a literature review and model that will be empirically tested after gathering information to form a reliable database about the performance of multinationals.


International Marketing; Marketing; Performance Subsidiaries; Integrative Model;

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


ACHROL, R. S. Evolution of the Marketing Organization: New Forms for Turbulent Environments. Journal of Marketing, v. 55, p. 77-93, 1991.

ALON, I.; SHOHAM, A. Clustering for international market selection. Franchise globally: Innovation, learning and imitation, 73-90, 2010.


AMBOS, T. C.; AMBOS, B.; SCHLEGELMILCH, B. B. Learning from foreign subsidiaries: An empirical investigation of headquarters’ benefits from reverse knowledge transfer. International Business Review, v. 15, p. 294-312, 2006.

ANDERSSON, U.; FORSGREN, M.; HOLM, U. The strategic impact of external networks: Subsidiary performance and competence development in the multinational corporation. Strategic Management Journal, v. 23, n. 11, p. 979-996, 2002.

BABIN, B. J.; HAIR JR, J. F.; BOLES, J. S. Publishing research in marketing journals using structural equation modeling. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, v. 16, n. 4, p. 279-285, 2008.

BACKHAUS, K.; VAN DOORN, J. Consumer perceptions of advertising starndardisation: a cross-country study of different advertising categories. International Management Review, v. 3, n. 4, p. 37-53, 2007.

BAGOZZI, R. P.; YI, Y.; PHILLIPS, L. W. Assessing Construct Validity in Organizational Research. Administrative Science Quarterly, v. 36, n. 3, p. 421-458, 1991.

BAKER, W. E.; SINKULA, J. M. Environmental marketing strategy and firm performance: effects on new product performance and market share. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, v. 33, n. 4, p. 461-475, 2005.

BARTLETT, C. A.; GHOSHAL, S. Managing across borders. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

BIRKINSHAW, J.; HOOD, N.; JONSSON, S. Building firm-specific advantages in multinational corporations: The role of subsidiary initiative. Strategic Management Journal, v. 19, n. 3, p. 221-242, 1998.

______; HOLM, U.; THILENIUS, P.; ARVIDSSON, N. Consequences of Perception Gaps in the Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationship. International Business Review, v. 9, n. 3, p. 321-344, 2000.

BOWMAN, S.; DUNCAN, J.; WEIR, C. Decision-making autonomy in multinational corporation subsidiaries operating in Scoltland. European Business Review, v. 12, n. 2, p. 129-136, 2000.

BROOK, M. Z. Centralization and autonomy: A study in organization behavior. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.

CATEORA, P. R.; GRAHAM, J. L. International Marketing. Estados Unidos: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

CAVUSGIL, S. T.; ZOU, S. Marketing Strategy-Performance Relationship: An Investigation of the Empirical Link in Export Market Ventures. Journal of Marketing, v. 58, n. 1, p. 1-21, 1994.

CHIAO, Y. C.; LO, F. Y.; YU, C. M. Choosing between wholly-owned subsidiaries and joint ventures of MNCs from an emerging market. International Marketing Review, v. 27, n. 3, p. 338-365, 2010.

______; YING, K. P. Network effect and subsidiary autonomy in multinational corporations: An investigation of Taiwanese subsidiaries. International Business Review, v. 22, n. 4, p. 652-662, 2013.

CHURCHILL JR, G. A. A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, v. 16, n. 1, p. 64-73, 1979.

COLTMAN, T.; DEVINNEY, T. M.; MIDGLEY, D. F.; VENAIK, S. Formative versus reflective measurement models: two applications of formative measurement. Journal of Business Research, v. 61, n. 12, p. 1250–1262, 2008.

COSTA, L. H. I. Internacionalização de empresas e adaptação do mix de marketing: um estudo de caso no Mercosul. Rio de janeiro: COPPEAD/UFRJ, 1998.

CRAIG, C. S.; DOUGLAS, S. P. Configural advantage in global markets. Journal of International Marketing, v. 8, n. 1, p. 6-26, 2000.

CUI, A. S.; GRIFFITH, D. A.; CAVUSGIL, S. T.; DABIC, M. The Influence of Market and Culture Environmental Factors on Technology Transfer Between Foreign MNCs and Local Subsidiaries: A Croatian Illustration. Journal of World Business, v. 41, n. 2, p. 100-111, 2006.

CUI, A. P.; WALSH, M. F.; ZOU, S. The Importance of Strategic Fit Between Host-Home Country Similarity and Exploration Exploitation Strategies on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises' Performance: A Contingency Perspective. Journal of International Marketing, v. 22, n. 4, p. 67-85, 2014.

DALMORO, M. Estratégias de Marketing Internacional e a Relação com a Performance Exportadora e Orientação para Mercado Externo. Internext, v. 4, n. 2, p. 1-18, 2010.

DE BEULE, F.; ELIA, S.; PISCITELLO, L. Entry and access to competencies abroad: emerging market firms versus advanced market firms. Journal of International Management, v. 20, n. 2, p. 137-152, 2014.

CARPES, A. M.; VELTER, A. N.; SCHERER, F. L.; LÜTZ, C. Panorama internacional das publicações em International Business: levantamento por meio da base Web of Science. Internext, v. 5, n. 2, p. 117-139, 2010.

DIAMANTOPOULOS, A.; SINGUAW, J. A. Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: a comparison and empirical illustration. British Journal of Management, v. 17, n. 4, p. 263-282, 2006.

DOMINGUES, F. Danone e Nestlé anunciam fechamento de unidade de lácteos na China, 2011. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 18 out. 2016.

DUNNING, J. H. Toward an eclectic theory of international production: some empirical tests. Journal of International Business Studies, p. 11, n. 1, p. 9-31, 1980.

______. The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions. Journal of International Business Studies, p. 1-31, 1988.

______. The theory of translational corporations. London: Routledge, 1993.

EDWARDS, J. R. Multidimensional constructs in organizational behavior research: An integrative analytical framework. Organizational Research Methods, v. 4, n. 2, p. 144-192, 2001.

EROGLU, S. The internationalization process of franchise systems: a conceptual model. International Marketing Review, v. 9, n. 5, 1992.

FATT, A. The danger of local international advertising. Journal of Marketing, p. 31, n. 1, p. 60-62, 1967.

CRETOIU, S. L.; BARAKAT, L.; XIMENES, M.; ALVIM, F. M.; NEVES, I. Ranking das Transnacionais Brasileiras 2011: crescimento e gestão sustentável no exterior. FDC – Fundação Dom Cabral, 2011.

FERREIRA, M. P.; BELTRÃO, J. S.; ALMEIDA, M. R. Relações de controle e autonomia entre multinacionais e subsidiárias: um estudo de caso de multinacional norte-americana em Portugal. Internext, v. 8, n. 3, p. 20-37, 2013.

FERRELL, O. C.; HARTLINE, M. D. Estratégia de Marketing. São Paulo: Cengage Learning Editores, 2009.

FORNELL, C.; LARCKER, D. F. Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, v. 18, n. 3, p. 382-388, 1981.

FOSS, N. J.; PEDERSEN, T. Transferring knowledge in MNCs: The role of sources of subsidiary knowledge in organizational context. Journal of International Marketing, v. 8, n. 1, p. 49-67, 2002.

FROST, T. The geographic sources of foreign subsidiaries innovation. Strategic Management Journal, v. 22, p. 101-13, 2001.

______; ZHOU, C. The geography of foreign R&D within a host country: An evolutionary perspective on location-technology selection by multinationals. International Studies of Management & Organizations, p. 10-43, 2000.

GATES, S. R.; EGELHOFF, W. G. Centralization in headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 17, n. 2, p. 71-92, 1986.

GREENWALD, B. C.; STIGLITZ, J. E. Asymmetric information and the new theory of the firm: financial constraints and risk behavior. American Economic Review, v. 80, n. 2, p. 160-165, 1990.

GREWAL, D.; IYER, G. R.; KAMAKURA, W. A.; MEHROTRA, A.; SHARMA, A. Evaluation of subsidiary marketing performance: combining process and outcome performance metrics. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, v. 37, p. 117-129, 2009.

HAIR JR, J. F.; BLACK, W. C.; BABIN, B. J.; ANDERSON, R. E. Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010.

HANSEN, M. T.; NOHRIA, N. Organizing Multinational Companies for Collaborative Advantage. In: QUELCH, J.; DESHPANDÉ, R. (Eds.). The Global Market: Developing a Strategy to Manage Across Borders. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, p. 92–112, 2004.

HOFSTEDE, G. Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills, 1980.

HOLM, U.; PEDERSEN, T. The Emergence and Impact of MNC Centres of Excellence: a subsidiary perspective. London: McMillan Press, 2000.

HOMBURG, C.; PFLESSER, C. A Multiple-Layer Model of Market-Oriented Organizational Culture: Measurement Issues and Performance Outcomes. Journal of Marketing Research, v. 37, n . 4, p. 449-462, 2000.

______; GROZDANOVIC, M.; KLARMANN, M. Responsiveness to Customers and Competitors: The Role of Affective and Cognitive Organizational Systems. Journal of Marketing, v. 71, n. 3, p. 18-38, 2007.

______; PRIGGE, J. Exploring Subsidiary Desire for Autonomy: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Findings. Journal of International Marketing, v. 22, n. 4, p. 21-43, 2014.

HUTSCHENREUTER, T.; KLEINDIENST, I.; LANGE, S. The Concept of Distance in Internacional Business Research: A Review and Research Agenda. International Journal of Management Review, p. 1-20, 2015.

JAIN, S. C. Standardization of International Marketing Strategy: Some Research Hypotheses. Journal of Marketing, v. 53, p. 70-79, 1989.

JARVIS, C. B.; MACKENZIE, S. B.; PODSAKOFF, P. M. A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, v. 30, n. 2, p. 199-218, 2003.

JAWORSKI, B. J.; KOHLI, A. K. Market Orientation: Antecedents and Consequences. Journal of Marketing, v. 57, p. 53-70, 1993.

JENSEN, M. C.; MECKLING, W. H. Theory of the firm: managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structures. Journal of Financial Economics, v. 3, n. 4, p. 305-360, 1976.

JOHANSON, J.; VAHLNE, J. E. The internationalization process of the firm-a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of international business studies, p. 23-32, 1977.

______; WIEDERSHEIM-PAUL, F. The internationalization of the firm – four Swedish cases. Journal of Management Studies, v. 12, p. 305-322, 1975.

KASHANI, K. Beware of pitfalls of global marketing. Harvard Business Review, September/October, v. 67, n. 5, p. 91-98, 1989.

KATSIKEAS, C. S.; SAMIEE, S.; THEODOSIOU, M. Strategy fit and performance consequences of international marketing standardization. Strategic Management Journal, v. 27, n. 9, p. 867-890, 2006.

KEEGAN, W. J. Marketing Global. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005.

KITCHEN, P. J. The Rhetoric and Reality of Marketing: An International Managerial Approach, Palgrave-Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2003.

KOGUT, B.; SINGH, H. The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 19, n. 3, p. 411-432, 1988.

LAMBIN, J. J. Marketing Estratégico. São Paulo: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

LAMPRINOPOULOU, C.; TREGEAR, A. Inter-firm relations in SME clusters and the link to marketing performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, v. 26, n. 6, p. 421-429, 2011.

LEE, R. P. Extending the Environment-Strategy-Performance Framework: The roles of multinational corporation network strength, market responsiveness, and product innovation. Journal of International Marketing, v. 18, n. 4, p. 58-73, 2010.

______; CHEN, Q.; KIM, D.; JOHNSON, J. L. Knowledge Transfer Between Multinational Corporations’ Headquarters and Their Subsidiaries: Influences on and Implications for New Product Outcomes. Journal of International Marketing, v. 16, n. 2, p. 1-31, 2008.

______; ______; LU, X. In Search of Platforms to Increase Market Responsiveness: Evidence from Foreign Subsidiaries. Journal of International Marketing, v. 17, n. 2, p. 59-73, 2009.

LEONIDOU, L. C.; BARNES, B. R.; KATSIKEAS, S. S. Assessing the contribution of leading mainstream marketing journals to the international marketing discipline. International Marketing Review, v. 27, n. 5, p. 491-518, 2009.

LEVITT, T. The globalization of markets. Harvard Business Review, v. 61, p. 92-102, 1983.

LUO, Y. Determinants of Local Responsiveness: Perspectives from Foreign Subsidiaries in an Emerging Market. Journal of Management, v. 27, n. 4, p. 451-477, 2001.

______. Capability exploitation and building in a foreign market: Implications for multinational enterprises. Organization Science, v. 13, p. 48-63, 2002.

MACKENZIE, S.; PODSAKOFF, P.; JARVIS, C. The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioural and organizational research and some recommended solutions. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 90, n. 4, p. 710-730, 2005.

MARTIN, I. M.; EROGLU, S. Measuring a Multi-Dimensional Construct: Country Image. Journal of Business Research, v. 28, p. 191-210, 1993.

MATHEWS, J. Dragon Multinationals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

______. Response to Dunning and Narula, 2016. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 05 mar. 2015.

MATSUNO, K.; MENTZER, J. T. The effects of strategy type on the market orientation-performance relationship. Journal of Marketing, v. 64, n. 4, p. 1-16, 2000.

MELO, P. L. R.; BORINI, F.; OLIVEIRA JR, M. M.; PARENTE, R. International analysis of the countries in which Brazilian franchise chains operate. Revista de Administração da USP, v. 50, n. 1, p. 26-39, 2015.

MENON, A.; BHARADWAJ, S. G.; ADIDAM, P. T.; EDISON, S. W. Antecedents and Consequences of Marketing Strategy Making: A Model and a Test. Journal of Marketing, v. 63, p. 18-40, 1999.

MOORE, K.; BIRKINSHAW, J. Managing knowledge in global service firms: centers of excellence. The academy of Management executive, v. 12, n. 4, p. 81-92, 1998.

NAVES, P. Rede de fast food Arby's fecha suas 21 lojas próprias em SP, 1999. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 20 de set. de 2016.

NETEMEYER, R. G.; BEARDEN, W. O.; SHARMA, S. Scaling procedures. CA: Sage, 2003.

OLIVEIRA JR, M. M. Internacionalização de empresas brasileiras: o papel das subsidiárias (Full Professor Dissertation, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade, Universidade de São Paulo), 2009.

PARK, C.; VERTINSKY, I.; BECERRA, M. Transfer of tacit vs. explicit knowledge and performance in international joint ventures: The role of age. International Business Review, v. 24, p. 89-101, 2015.

PESSOA, C. O.; ROCHA, A. Levando o Brasil para fora: comidas brasileiras da China e das Arábias. In: ROCHA, A. (Ed.). As novas fronteiras: a multinacionalização das empresas brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro: Mauad, 2003, p. 77-101.

PETER, J. P. Construct Validity: A Review of Basic Issues and Marketing Practices. Journal of Marketing Research, v. 18, n. 2, p. 133-145, 1981.

PHILIPS, C.; DOOLE, I.; LOWE, R. International Marketing Strategy. Londres: Routledge, 1994.

PIPKIN, A. Marketing internacional: uma abordagem estratégica. São Paulo: Aduaneiras, 2005.

POLANYI, K. The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time. Beacon Press, 1944.

QUESTER, P. G.; CONDUIT, J. Standardization, centralization and marketing in multinational companies. International Business Review, v. 5, n. 4, p. 395-421, 1996.

RAMAMURTI, R. What have we learned about emerging-market MNEs? In: RAMAMURTI, R.; SINGH, J. V. (Eds.), Emerging multinationals from emerging markets, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 399-426.

______. What is really different about emerging market multinationals? Global Strategy Journal, v. 2, p. 41-47, 2012.

RAMOS, M. C. A internacionalização não é uma opção, é uma necessidade, 2011. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 21 out. 2016.

REINARTZ, W.; KRAFFT, M.; HOYER, W. D. The customer relationship management process: Its measurement and impact on performance. Journal of Marketing Research, v. 41, n. 3, p. 293-305, 2004.

ROCHA, T. V. Transferência de Conhecimento sobre Marketing em Corporações Multinacionais: Estudo em Subsidiárias Brasileiras. In: AMATUCCI, M. Internacionalização de empresas: teorias, problemas e casos, 2009, p.179-202.

______; BORINI, F. M.; SPERS, E. E.; KHAUAJA, D.; CAMARGO, A. Aspectos mercadológicos e estratégicos da internacionalização de franquias brasileiras. São Paulo: ESPM, 2012.

______; ______; ______; OGASAVARA, M. H.; KHAUAJA, D.; CAMARGO, A.; MELO, P. L. R. Stages of Internationalization of Brazilian Franchises. São Paulo: ESPM, 2014.

ROTH, M. S.; JAYACHANDRAN, S.; DAKHI, M.; COLTON, D. A. Subsidiary Use of Foreign Marketing Knowledge. Journal of International Marketing, v. 17, n. 1, p. 1-29, 2009.

RUGMAN, A. M. New theories of multinationals enterprises: an assessment of internationalization theory. Bulletin of Economic Research, v. 38, p. 101-118, 1986.

______; VERBEKE, A.; NGUYEN, Q. Fifty years of international business theory and beyond. Management International Review, v. 51, p. 755-786, 2011.

RUST, R. T.; LEMON, K. N.; ZEITHAML, V. A. Return on marketing: Using customer equity to focus marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing, v. 68, n. 1, p. 109-127, 2004.

SCHILKE, O.; REIMANN, M.; THOMAS, J. S. When Does International Marketing Standardization Matter to Firm Performance?. Journal of International Marketing, v. 17, n. 4, p. 24-46, 2009.

SCHLEGELMILCH, B. B.; CHINI, T. C. Knowledge transfer between marketing functions in multinational companies: a conceptual model. International Business Review, v. 12, n. 2, p. 215-232, 2003.

SCHLEIMER, S. C.; COOTE, L. V.; RIEGE, A. Headquarters to subsidiary transfer effects on marketing strategy exploitation. Journal of Business Research, v. 67, p. 307-315, 2014.

SCHMID, S.; KOTULLA, T. 50 years of research on international standardization and adaptation – From a systematic literature analysis to a theoretical framework. International Business Review, v. 20, p. 491-507, 2011.

SEUFERT, A.; VON KROGH, G.; BACH, A. Towards knowledge networking. Journal of Knowledge Management, v. 3, n. 3, p. 180-190, 1999.

SHENKAR, O.; LUO, Y.; YEHESKEL, O. From ‘distance’ to ‘friction’: substituting metaphors and redirecting intercultural research. Academy of Management Review, v. 33, p. 905-923, 2008.

SOUFANI, K.; VRONTIS, D.; POUTZIOURIS, P. Private equity for small firms: a conceptual model of adaptation versus standardization strategy. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, v. 3, n. 3/4, p. 498-515, 2006.

SOUSA, C. M.; LENGLER, J. Psychic distance, marketing strategy and performance in export ventures of Brazilian firms. Journal of Marketing Management, v. 25, n. 5/6, p. 591-610, 2009.

SYZMANSKI, D. M.; BHARADWAJ, S. G.; VARADARAJAN, P. R. Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: An empirical investigation. Journal of Marketing, v. 57, p. 1-17, 1993.

TABACHNICK, B. G.; FIDELL, L. S. Experimental Design Using ANOVA. Belmont: Thomson Higher Education, 2007.

TAGGART, J. H.; HOOD, N. Determinants of autonomy in multinational corporation subsidiaries. European Management Journal, v. 17, n. 2, p. 226-236, 1999.

THEODOSIOU, M.; LEONIDOU, L. C. Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: an integrative assessment of the empirical research. International Business Review, v. 12, p. 141-171, 2003.

THRASSOU, A.; VRONTIS, D. A small services firm marketing communications model for SME-dominated environments. Journal of Marketing Communications, v. 12, n. 3, p. 183-202, 2006.

TOWNSEND, J. T.; ASHBY, F. G. Measurement Scales and Statistics: The Misconception Misconceived. Psychological Bulletin, v. 96, n. 2, p. 394-401, 1984.

TOWNSEND, J. D.; YENIYURT, S.; DELIGONUL, Z. S.; CAVUSGIL, S. T. Exploring the Marketing Program Antecedents of Performance in a Global Company. Journal of International Marketing, v. 12, n. 4, p. 1-24, 2004.

TSAI, W.; GHOSHAL, S. Social Capital and Value Creation: The Role of Intrafirm Networks. Academy of Management Journal, v. 41, n. 4, p. 464-476, 1998.

UZZI, B. Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, v. 42, n. 1, p. 35-67, 1997.

VACHANI, S. Global diversification’s effect on multinational subsidiaries’ autonomy. International Business Review, v. 8, n. 3, p. 535-560, 1999.

VERMEULEN, F.; BARKEMA, H. Pace, rhythm, and scope: process dependence in building a profitable multinational Corporation. Strategic Management Journal, v. 23, p. 637-653, 2002.

VERNON, R. The product cycle hypothesis in a new international environment. Oxford bulletin of economics and statistics, v. 41, n. 4, p. 255-267, 1979.

VON KROGH, G.; KÖHNE, M. Der Wissenstransfer in Unternehmen: Phasen des Wissenstransfers und wichtige Einflussfaktoren. Die Unternehmung, v. 52, n. 5/6, p. 235-252, 1998.

VORHIES, D. W.; MORGAN, N. A. A configuration theory assessment of marketing organization fit with business strategy and its relationship with marketing performance. Journal of Marketing, v. 67, n. 1, p. 100-115, 2003.

VRONTIS, D. Integrating adaptation and standardisation in international marketing, the AdaptStand modelling process. Journal of Marketing Management, v. 19, n. 3/4, p. 283-305, 2003.

______; THRASSOU, A.; LAMPRIANOU, I. International marketing adaptation versus standardisation of multinational companies. International Marketing Review, v. 26, n. 4/5, p. 477-500, 2009.

XU, S.; CAVUSGIL, S. T.; WHITE, J. C. The impact of strategic fit among strategy, structure and processes on multinational corporation performance: A multimethod assessment. Journal of International Marketing, v. 14, n. 2, p. 1-31, 2006.

YIP, G. Toward a new global strategy. Chief Executive Journal, v. 110, p. 66-67, 1996.

YOUNG, S.; TAVARES, A. T. Centralization and autonomy: Back to the future. International Business Review, v. 13, n. 2, p. 215-237, 2004.

ZAHEER, S.; SHOMAKRE, M. S.; NACHUM, L. Distance without direction: restoring credibility to a much-loved constructo. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 43, p. 18-27, 2012.

ZOU, S.; CAVUSGIL, S. T. The GMS: A broad conceptualization of global marketing strategy and its effect on firm performance. Journal of Marketing, v. 66, p. 40-56, 2002.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2016 Internext

INTERNEXT (e-ISSN: 1980-4865)

ESPM | Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing 

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra foi licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 3.0 Não Adaptada.

Rua: Dr. Álvaro Alvim, 123 - Vila Mariana - São Paulo - SP - Cep: 04018-010 - e-mail:

Indexadores e Diretório:

Desenvolvido por:

Logomarca da Lepidus Tecnologia