Brazilian franchisor: Entry and operation of internationalized franchise

Helder de Souza Aguiar, Marcos Roberto Luppe, Paulo Tromboni de Souza Nascimento


This study aimed to compare the entry and operations strategies of franchisors of developed countries into foreign countries with Brazilian counterparts. Were there significant differences? An exploratory study was conducted with 16 international franchisors operating in Brazil and 31 Brazilian franchisors operating abroad. The results show that international franchisors operating abroad prefer to use a subsidiary in the destination country. At the same time, this strategy is little used by Brazilian franchisors, which prefer the strategy of direct franchises. For data collection, 47 directors or managers of the international expansion of Brazilian companies and the expansion directors of the international companies which operates in Brazil were interviewed. Although more expensive, the subsidiary in the target country offers greater control over the expansion of business reducing the problems caused by the distance of the country of origin. For the management of franchisors, this paper points out that the subsidiary is a natural evolution of entry and operation mode when it is desired or it is needed to control the expansion of networks in other countries. Thus, managers of franchisors in emerging countries should carefully examine the subsidiary option in the target country when their company considers accelerating international growth.


Franchising; International Operation; Entry Mode; Franchisors; Internationalization.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


 Associação Brasileira De Franchising – ABF. (2017) Evolução do Setor 2003-2014. Retrieved September, 2017, from

 Aguiar, H. de S., Consoni, F. l., & Bernardes, R. C. (2014). Estratégia de internacionalização conduzida: um estudo em Redes de Franquias Brasileiras. RECADM- Revista Eletrônica de Ciência Administrativa, 13(1), 114–131.

 Aguiar, H. de S., Consoni, F. L., & Bernardes, R. C. (2014). Redes de Franquia Brasileiras Internacionalizadas : evolução do método de entrada no. Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia - RIAE, 13(1), 33–48.

 Akremi, E., Perrigot, R., & Piot-lepetit, I. (2015). Examining the Drivers for Franchised Chains Performance through the Lens of the Dynamic Capabilities Approach *. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(1), 145–165.

 Aliouche, E. H., & Schlentrich, U. a. (2011). Towards a Strategic Model of Global Franchise Expansion. Journal of Retailing, 87(3), 345–365.

 Alon, I. (2006). Market Conditions Favoring Master International Franchising. Multinational Business Review, 14(2), 67–82.

 Anderson, E., & Gatignon, H. (1986). Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions. Journal of International Business Studies, 17(3), 1–26.

 Aydin, N., & Kacker, M. (1990). International Outlook of US-based Franchisers. International Marketing Review, 7(2).

 Baena, V. (2012). Market conditions driving international franchising in emerging markets. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 7(1), 49–71.

 Baena Graciá, V., & Cerviño Fernández, J. (2009). La internalización de la franquicia española y sus formas de penetración de mercados. Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, 12(40), 47–82.

 Bardin, L. (2009). Análise de conteúdo (Edição revista e actualizada). Lisboa: Edições 70.

 Brookes, M., & Roper, A. (2011). International master franchise agreements: An investigation of control from operational, relational and evolutionary perspectives. European Journal of Marketing, 45(7/8), 1253–1276.

 Burton, F. N., & Cross, A. R. (1995). Franchising and foreign market entry. In International marketing reader (p. 35–48). London: Routledge.

 Camargo, M. A. de A. P., Rocha, T. V., & Silva, S. C. e. (2016). Estratégias de marketing no processo de internacionalização de franquias brasileiras. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 18(62), 570–592.

 Combs, J. G., & Ketchen, D. J. (1999). Can capital scarcity help agency theory explain franchising? Revisiting the capital scarcity hypothesis. Academy of Management Journal, 42(2), 196–207.

 Doherty, a M., & Alexander, N. S. (2004). Relationship development in international retail franchising: case study evidence from the UK fashion sector. European Journal of Marketing Relationship, 38(9/10), 1215–1235.

 Doherty, a M., & Alexander, N. S. (2006). Power and control in international retail franchising. European Journal of Marketing, 40(11/12), 1292–1316.

 Dunning, J. H. (1988). The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(1), 1–31.

 ‏‎Elango, B. (2007). Are Franchisors with International Operations Different from Those Who Are Domestic Market Oriented? Journal of Small Business Management, 45(2), 179–193. Recuperado de

 Eroglu, S. (1992). The Internationalization Process of Franchise Systems: A Conceptual Model. International Marketing Review.

 Fladmoe-Lindquist, K., & Jacque, L. (1995). Control modes in international service operations: The Propensity to Franchise. Management Science, 41(7), 1238. Recuperado de

 Flick, U., & Gibbs, G. (2005). Análise de dados qualitativos. Análise de dados qualitativos. Porto Alegre: Bookman.

 Goncalves, V. F. C., & Duarte, M. M. M. C. (1994). Some Aspects of Franchising in Portugal. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 22(7), 30–40.

 Gonzalez-diaz, M., & Solis-rodriguez, V. (2012). Journal of Business Venturing Why do entrepreneurs use franchising as a fi nancial tool? An agency explanation. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(3), 325–341.

 Hackett, D. (1976). The international expansion of US franchise systems: status and strategies. Journal of International Business Studies, 7(1), 65–75. Recuperado de

 Jell-ojobor, M., & Windsperger, J. (2013). Journal of International Management. The Choice of Governance Modes of International Franchise Firms — Development of an Integrative Model. Journal of International Management.

 Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3(4), 305–360.

 Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J. (1977). Process of The Internationalization Development Firm-A Model of Knowledge Foreign and Increasing Market Commitments. Journal of international business studies, 8, 23–32.

 Khanna, T., & Palepu, K. G. (2010). Winning in the World’s Emerging Markets, 2nd Edition. Harvard Business Review.

 Khauaja, D. M. R., & Toledo, G. L. (2011). O processo de internacionalização de empresas brasileiras: Estudo com franqueadoras. Internext – Revista Eletrônica de Negócios Internacionais, 6(1), 42–62.

 Lafontaine, F. (1992). Agency Theory and Franchising: Some Empirical Results. The RAND Journal of Economics, 23(2), 263–283.

 Lafontaine, F., & Leibsohn, D. (2005). Beyond Entry: Examining McDonald ’s Expansion in International Markets. In in International Society of Franchising Conference Proceedings (p. 0–26).

 Madanoglu, M., Alon, I., & Shoham, A. (2017). Push and pull factors in international franchising factors. International Marketing Review, 34(1), 29–45.

 Melo, P. L. de R., Borini, F. M., Oliveira Jr., M. D. M., & Parente, R. C. (2015). Internationalization of Brazilian Franchise Chains: A Comparative Study. RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, 55(3), 258–272.

 Mendelsohn, M. (1994). A essência do franchising. (ABF-Associação Brasileira de Franchising, Org.). São Paulo.

 Ni, L., & Alon, I. (2010). U.S.-Based Fast-Food Restaurants: Factors Influencing the International Expansion of Franchise Systems. Journal of Marketing Channels, 17(4), 339–359.

 Quinn, B. (1998). Towards a framework for the study of franchising as an operating mode for international retail companies. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 8(4), 445–467.

 Quinn, B., & Alexander, N. (2002). International retail franchising: a conceptual framework. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30(5), 264–276.

 Rocha, T., Borini, F., & Spers, E. (2012). Aspectos mercadológicos e estratégicos da internacionalização das franquias brasileiras (Vol. 2). São Paulo: ESPM.

 Sanghavi, N. (1991). Retail franchising as a growth strategy for the 1990s. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 19(2).

 Stanworth, J., & Dandridge, T. (1994). Business franchising and economic change: an overview. International Small Business Journal, 12(2), 12–14.

 Thomas, D. (2013). Internationalization of franchises from emerging markets: a focus on Latin-America. International Journal of Business Strategy, 13(1), 13.

 Vandermerwe, S., & Chadwick, M. (1989). The Internationalisation of Services. The Service Industries Journal, 9(1), 79–93.

 Welch, L. S. (1989). Diffusion of Franchise System Use in International Operations. International Marketing Review, 6(5), 7–19.

 Welsh, D. H. B., Alon, I., & Falbe, C. M. (2006). An examination of international retail franchising in emerging markets. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(1), 130–149.

 Welsh, D. H. B., & Avenue-, H. (2006). An examination of international retail franchising in emerging marketS James W. Walter Distinguished Chair in Entrepreneurship Professor of Management Director , Entrepreneurship & Family Business Programs Sykes College of Business University of Tampa 40, 4958(January).


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2017 Internext

Desenvolvido por:

Logomarca da Lepidus Tecnologia

INTERNEXT (e-ISSN: 1980-4865)

ESPM | Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing 

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional.

Rua: Dr. Álvaro Alvim, 123 - Vila Mariana - São Paulo - SP - Cep: 04018-010 - e-mail:

Indexadores e Diretório: