Evolution in franchising: Trends and new perspectives

Luis Fernando Varotto, Leonardo Aureliano-Silva

Resumo


Franchising como um conceito legal ou de marketing não é recente. Ele surge como como um sistema de negócios estruturado nos EUA, por volta de 1860 quando a The Singer Company estabelece uma rede de revendas para máquinas de costura. Atualmente o franchising é uma das formas de negócio de mais rápido crescimento no mundo. A evolução das teorias que buscam explicar os sistemas de franquia tem sido publicadas em periódicos acadêmicos de tempos em tempos, mas até o momento não houve um estudo que tenha estabelecido uma análise de rede social para quantificar o grau de centralidade e de coesão do relacionamento entre os principais autores, periódicos, métodos e teorias em franquia. Por isso o principal propósito deste estudo é o de ampliar o conhecimento sobre franchising por meio de uma extensa pesquisa sobre suas principais perspectivas teóricas em periódicos acadêmicos internacionais relevantes, mostrando a evolução da área, ressaltando as suas principais questões, autores e métodos. Por meio de uma seleção de 130 artigos de 1966 a 2015, o estudo investiga cinco teorias relevantes em franquias: (1) Teoria da Aquisição de Recursos, (2) Teoria da Agência, (3) Analise dos Custos de Transação, (4) Teoria da Sinalização, e (5) Teoria dos Direitos de Propriedade. Uma análise estatística de característica descritiva foi realizada com o objetivo de
identificar os principais autores e tendências com as teorias mais utilizadas em artigos sobre franquias. As descobertas mostram a Teoria da Agência, a Teoria da Sinalização e a Teoria da Aquisição de Recursos como as principais perspectivas utilizadas em estudos sobre franchising, mas outras perspectivas têm ampliado sua presença, principalmente a Teoria Institucional e a Perspectiva Baseada em Recursos. As principais variáveis dependentes e independentes cobrem uma ampla variedade de construtos, porém propriedade, desempenho, idade, tamanho, crescimento, dispersão geográfica e internacionalização tem sido as mais citadas.

Palavras-chave


franchising, marketing, theoretical approaches

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18568/1980-4865.12331-42

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